LYCOPENE
 
   

Lycopene

This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
Send all comments or additions to:
   Frankp@chiro.org
 
   

Lycopene Articles
 
   

Lycopene: A Monograph
Alternative Medicine Review 2003 (Aug);   8 (3):   336342 ~ FULL TEXT

Lycopene, a carotenoid without provitamin-A activity, is present in many fruits and vegetables. Dietary intakes of tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene have been shown in cell culture, animal, and epidemiological investigations to be associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, serum and tissue lycopene levels have been inversely correlated with risk of lung and prostate cancer.

Natural Therapies for Ocular Disorders

   Part I:   Diseases of the Retina
Alternative Medicine Review 1999 (Oct);   4 (5):   342359 ~ FULL TEXT

Diseases of the retina are the leading causes of blindness throughout the world. Evidence points to potential benefit from nutritional and botanical interventions for the prevention and treatment of several of these conditions, including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of the newborn, and retinitis pigmentosa.

   Part II:   Cataracts and Glaucoma
Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Apr);   6 (2):   141166 ~ FULL TEXT

Pathophysiological mechanisms of cataract formation include deficient glutathione levels contributing to a faulty antioxidant defense system within the lens of the eye. Nutrients to increase glutathione levels and activity include lipoic acid, vitamins E and C, and selenium. Cataract patients also tend to be deficient in vitamin A and the carotenes, lutein and zeaxanthin.


The "Comeback" Carotenoids
Research shows that eating ample amounts of lycopene-rich tomatoes greatly reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene is the most potent carotenoid antioxidant, followed by beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin.

 
   

Lycopene Abstracts
 
   

Intestinal Absorption of Lycopene from Different Matrices and Interactions
to Other Carotenoids, the Lipid Status, and the Antioxidant Capacity
of Human Plasma

Eur J Nutr 1999 (Jun);   38 (3):   118125

The bioavailability of lycopene varied significantly depending on the administered matrix. Lycopene from tomato oleoresin capsules and tomato juice (processed tomatoes) was better absorbed from the intestine than lycopene from raw tomatoes. The daily intake of 5 mg lycopene, an intake comparable to the usual daily carotenoid intake, did not affect cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma or its antioxidant capacity.

Lycopene: Chemistry, Biology, and Implications for Human Health and Disease
Nutr Rev 1998 (Feb);   56 (2 Pt 1):   35-51

A diet rich in carotenoid-containing foods is associated with a number of health benefits. Lycopene provides the familiar red color to tomato products and is one of the major carotenoids in the diet of North Americans and Europeans. Interest in lycopene is growing rapidly following the recent publication of epidemiologic studies implicating lycopene in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancers of the prostate or gastrointestinal tract.

Carotenoids, Alpha-tocopherols, and Retinol in Plasma and Breast Cancer Risk
in Northern Sweden

Cancer Causes Control 2001 (Aug);   12 (6):   529537

However, results from stratified analysis by cohort membership and menopausal status suggest that lycopene and other plasma-carotenoids may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer and that menopausal status has an impact on the mechanisms involved.

Bioavailability and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lycopene from Tomato
Products and Their Possible Role in the Prevention of Cancer

Nutr Cancer 1998;   31 (3):   199203

These results indicate that lycopene is readily absorbed from tomato products and may act as an in vivo antioxidant. It may, therefore, play an important role in the prevention of cancer.

Lower Prostate Cancer Risk in Men with Elevated Plasma Lycopene Levels:
Results of a Prospective Analysis

Cancer Res 1999 (Mar 15);   59 (6):   12251230

These data provide further evidence that increased consumption of tomato products and other lycopene-containing foods might reduce the occurrence or progression of prostate cancer.

Lycopene as the Most Efficient Biological Carotenoid Singlet Oxygen Quencher
Arch Biochem Biophys 1989 (Nov 1);   274 (2):   532538

Lycopene, a biologically occurring carotenoid, exhibits the highest physical quenching rate constant with singlet oxygen (Kq = 31 X 109 M-l S-1), and its plasma level is slightly higher than that of -carotene (Kq = 14 X 109 M-1 S-l). This is of considerable general interest, since nutritional carotenoids, particularly -carotene, and other antioxidants such as a- tocopherol (Kq = 0.3 X 109 M-1 S-l) have been implicated in the defense against prooxidant states.

Tomatoes, Tomato-Based Products, Lycopene, and Cancer:
Review of the Epidemiologic Literature

J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;   91 (4):   317331

Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites.



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