Circulating Carotenoids, Mammographic Density, and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer
Cancer Res 2009 (Dec 15); 69 (24): 9323-9329
Among women in the highest tertile of mammographic density, total carotenoids were associated with a 50% reduction in breast cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.8). Our results suggest that plasma levels of carotenoids may play a role in reducing breast cancer risk, particularly among women with high mammographic
Relationship of Serum Antioxidant Micronutrients and Sociodemographic Factors to Cervical Neoplasia: A Case-control Study
Clin Chem Lab Med 2009; 47 (8): 1005–1012
Cervical cancer was found to be associated with older age, increased body mass index, and lower socioeconomic status as measured by education level and income. The mean serum concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin plus lutein, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol of cervical cancer patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects. The results of this study show an inverse association between serum antioxidant micronutrient concentrations and the risk of cervical neoplasia. These results suggest that antioxidant micronutrients play a role in the prevention of cervical carcinogenesis.
A Randomized Trial of Beta Carotene Supplementation and Cognitive Function in Men: The Physicians' Health Study II
Arch Intern Med 2007 (Nov 12); 167 (20): 2184–2190 ~ FULL TEXT
We added cognitive testing to the Physicians' Health Study II (PHSII), a randomized trial of beta carotene and other vitamin supplements for chronic disease prevention. The PHSII is a continuation of the Physicians' Health Study (PHS), which had randomized male participants to low-dose aspirin and beta carotene. Participants include those continuing their original beta carotene assignment from the PHS, begun in 1982. Among 4052 continuing participants from the PHS (mean treatment duration, 18 years), the mean global score was significantly higher in the beta carotene group than in the placebo group (mean difference in z scores, 0.047 standard units; P = .03). On verbal memory, men receiving long-term beta carotene supplementation also performed significantly better than the placebo group (mean difference in z scores, 0.063; P = .007).
Role of Male Factor in Early Recurrent Embryo Loss:
Do Antioxidants Have Any Effect?
Fertil Steril 2009 (Aug); 92 (2): 565-71
Of the 17 men, 9 (53%) presented with an increased %DFI or TBARS. They were started on an antioxidant supplementation regimen. Of these nine men, six of their spouses became pregnant. All couples whose male partners accepted antioxidant supplementation achieved a successful pregnancy.
Astaxanthin, Canthaxanthin and Beta-carotene Differently Affect UVA-induced Oxidative Damage and Expression of Oxidative Stress-responsive Enzymes
Exp Dermatol 2009 (Mar); 18 (3): 222-31
Editorial Comment:. This article is a perfect reminder that we can't rely on just ONE antioxidant, and expect the amazing results found when you eat a diet filled with fruits and vegetables. This is why you need to either eat a broad spectrum of antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, Vitamins C, E, selenium, zinc etc) OR eat many servings of fruits and vegetables every day, to support ALL the various enzyme systems that reduce our risks of developing cancer and other diseases.
Beta-Carotene: The Controversy Continues
Alternative Medicine Review 2000 (Dec); 5 (6): 530–545 ~ FULL TEXT
The safety of synthetic b-carotene supplements and the role of isomeric forms of b-carotene (synthetic all-trans versus "natural" cis-trans isomeric mixtures), in addition to the importance of the protective role of other carotenoids like lycopene and lutein, have become topics of debate in the scientific and medical communities. This review addresses the biochemistry and physiology of the cis versus trans isomers of b-carotene as well as relevant studies comparing the absorption and storage of the synthetic versus natural forms of b-carotene.
Natural Therapies for Ocular Disorders
Part I: Diseases of the Retina
Alternative Medicine Review 1999 (Oct); 4 (5): 342–359 ~ FULL TEXT
During the past few decades numerous studies have been published on the efficacy of nutritional and botanical medicines in the prevention and treatment of ocular diseases, including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinitis pigmentosa, cataracts, glaucoma, and others. Part One of this review will explore the research on diseases of the retina, including macular degeneration, retinopathy, and retinitis pigmentosa.
Part II: Cataracts and Glaucoma
Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Apr); 6 (2): 141–166 ~ FULL TEXT
Part one of this article was published in the October 1999 issue of Alternative Medicine Review and discussed nutritional and botanical approaches to conditions of the retina. This second part covers alternative treatments for nonretinal disorders: senile cataracts, diabetic cataracts, and chronic open-angle glaucoma.
) which discusses the impact antioxidants and carotenoids have on preventing cataracts and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
The "Comeback" Carotenoids
Research shows that eating ample amounts of lycopene-rich tomatoes greatly reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Lycopene is the most potent carotenoid antioxidant, followed by beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin.
Carotenoids Come of Age
Carotenoids are considered potential membrane antioxidants due to reactivity with singlet oxygen and oxygen free radicals. Singlet oxygen has been implicated in biological systems and is capable of damaging proteins, lipids and DNA and therefore is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The anti-cancer activity of carotenoids may be, at least in part, attributable to its antioxidant activity insofar as oxygen radicals are related to the processes leading to human cancer.
During the late nineties, antioxidant research surged, particularly on carotenoidsthat fat-soluble group of pigments widely distributed in plants and animals. Carotenoids have demonstrable antioxidant abilities and are thought to be important in helping to prevent numerous diseases. Some of the more exciting new research is being done on age-related macular degeneration. As a member of the carotenoid group xanthophylls, astaxanthin possesses oxygen in its chemical structure. Other xanthophylls include canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. Some of the better-known carotenoids of other groups are beta-carotene (present in carrots), lycopene (in tomatoes) and lutein (in spinach). Unlike beta-carotene, astaxanthin lacks pro-vitamin A activity. 
Preventing Macular Degeneration
As each of us gets older, the faculty that most notably deteriorates is our vision. One optical problem receiving increasing attention today is "macular degeneration," an eye disease affecting the central part of the retina. Recent research suggests that carotenoids, particularly Lutein and Zeaxanthin, seem to reduce the risk of developing macular degeneration. You might also enjoy a similar article (called Second Sight