GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID (GLA)
 
   

Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA)

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
Send all comments or additions to:
  Frankp@chiro.org

If there are terms in these articles you don't understand, you can get a definition from the Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. If you want information about a specific disease, you can access the Merck Manual. You can also search Pub Med for more abstracts on this, or any other health topic.

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Gamma-Linolenic Acid Abstracts
 
   

The Omega-3 Fatty Acids Page
Find out more about how Omega-3 essential fatty acids can help reduce inflammation (pain relief) while also protecting against the development of numerous diseases.


Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA) Monograph
Alternative Medicine Review 2004 (Mar);   9 (1):   70–78 ~ FULL TEXT

Infants appear to lack sufficient delta-6-desaturase activity. Whereas breast milk is high in GLA and DGLA, infant formula is not. This can lead to a deficiency state in formula-fed infants, particularly skim milk-based formula.(8) GLA-deficient infants present with dryness, desquamation and thickening of the skin, and growth failure. (9,10) Subclinical deficiency of essential fatty acids has been studied in pre-term and term infants.


Multiple Sclerosis, An Autoimmune Inflammatory Disease:
Prospects for its Integrative Management

Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Dec);   6 (6):   540–566 ~ FULL TEXT

No pharmaceutical or other therapies exist that confer prolonged remission on MS, and obvious interrelationships between toxic, infectious, and dietary factors make a persuasive case for integrative management. The time-proven MS diet meticulously keeps saturated fats low, includes three fish meals per week, and eliminates allergenic foods. Dietary supplementation for MS minimally requires potent vitamin supplementation, along with the thiol antioxidants, the anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, and adaptogenic phytonutrients. Gut malabsorption and dysbiosis can be corrected using digestive enzymes and probiotics. You may review other articles about the nutritional treatment for Multiple Sclerosis


Can Manipulation of the Ratios of Essential Fatty Acids Slow
the Rapid Rate of Postmenopausal Bone Loss?

Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Feb);   6 (1):   61–77 ~ FULL TEXT

The rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss is mediated by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Dietary supplementation with fish oil, flaxseeds, and flaxseed oil in animals and healthy humans significantly reduces cytokine production while concomitantly increasing calcium absorption, bone calcium, and bone density. Possibilities may exist for the therapeutic use of the omega-3 fatty acids, as supplements or in the diet, to blunt the increase of the inflammatory bone resorbing cytokines produced in the early postmenopausal years, in order to slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss. Evidence also points to the possible benefit of gamma-linolenic acid in preserving bone density.


Effects of Gamma-linolenic Acid and Oleic Acid on Paclitaxel
Cytotoxicity in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Eur J Cancer 2001 (Feb);   37 (3):   402–413

For comparison, the effects of other fatty acids on paclitaxel chemosensitivity were examined: GLA was the most potent at enhancing paclitaxel cytotoxicity, followed by alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n.3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), whereas linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) did not increase paclitaxel toxicity. These findings provide experimental support for the use of fatty acids as modulators of tumour cell chemosensitivity in paclitaxel-based therapy. You may review other articles about the nutritional treatment for Cancer


Effect of Administration of Gamma-Linolenic Acid on the Fatty Acid Composition of Serum Phospholipids and Cholesteryl Esters in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis
Ann Nutr Metab 1994;   38:   40–47

In this lipid class AA and the sum of AA plus its precursor dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid increased significantly with the dose fed. A positive correlation was found between change in vital capacity and change in linoleic acid content of serum CE and AA content of serum PL.


The Use of Gamma-linolenic Acid in Diabetic Neuropathy
Agents Actions Suppl 1992;   37:   120–144

The lack of GLA and its metabolites may play a major role in the development of the neuropathy. EF4 helps to correct the biochemical defects, restores levels of GLA metabolites towards normal and produces highly significant clinical and neurophysiological improvements in diabetic neuropathy. You may review other articles about the nutritional treatment for Diabetic Neuropathy


Dietary Fatty Acid Supplementation Alters Stress Reactivity
and Performance in Man

J Hum Hypertens 1989 (Apr);   3 (2):   11–16

Reactivity to the Stroop colour-word conflict test was assessed prior to and following treatment. Borage oil alone attenuated blood pressure and heart rate responses to stress, increased skin temperature, and improved task performance. These data suggest that diet may be used to alter stress reactivity in man.


Polyunsaturated (Essential) Fatty Acids and Their Importance in
Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1982 (Jun);   50 (6):   173–189

The concept of nutritionally or metabolically induced generalized defects in all membranes, especially in the myelin sheath, as a predisposing factor to an increased susceptibility for the development of MS, provoked a gamut of pertinent studies frequently producing controversial results. Hence, these conceptions concerning the pathogenetic involvement of essential fatty acids in MS have been put to rest - even more so after the role of prostaglandins in immunoregulation had become more apparent, whose biological precursors are essential fatty acids.

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