OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS
 
   

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
Send all comments or additions to:
  Frankp@chiro.org

If there are terms in these articles you don't understand, you can get a definition from the Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. If you want information about a specific disease, you can access the Merck Manual. You can also search Pub Med for more abstracts on this, or any other health topic.

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Omega-3 Fatty Acid Articles
 
   


FROM: Life in the Balance   ~   Natural Medicine Online July 2000




FROM: Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Feb); nbsp; 6 (1): nbsp; 61–77
 
   


  
Long-chain N-3 PUFAs Reduce Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation in Severely Obese Nondiabetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 (Nov);   96 (5):   1137–1149

This study evaluated daily supplementation with 3.36g omega-3 fatty acids (O-3FA) for 8 weeks and inflammation in 55 obese nondiabetic patients. O-3FA decreased expression of inflammatory genes and increased production of anti-inflammatory compounds in fatty tissue. Treatment with O-3FA reduced inflammation and improved lipid metabolism in obese nondiabetic subjects.


  
4 Vitamins (and one Fatty Acid) That Strengthen Older Brains
           New Tork Times ~ January 2, 2012

           Higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E are associated with better mental functioning in the elderly, a new study has found.


  
Big Fish Story
           Scientists worldwide are praising a nutrient so powerful that it may help combat dozens of diseases. But don't expect an endorsement from our policy makers: They say we can do without


  
Cognitive Function After Supplementation With B Vitamins and Long-chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Ancillary Findings From the SU.FOL.OM3 Randomized Trial
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 (May 18) [Epub ahead of print]

This study investigated the effects of supplementation on cognition in a high-risk population. In subjects with prior stroke, B vitamins plus omega-3 fatty acids were associated with a higher score on the temporal orientation cognition task vs those assigned to placebo. Effects may be group specific and may be useful in interventions aimed at preventing cognitive decline in high-risk individuals


  
Nutritional Intervention with Fish Oil Provides a Benefit Over Standard of Care for Weight and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Patients with Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy
Cancer 2011 (Apr 15);   117 (8):   1775–1782

Involuntary weight loss is a major contributor to mortality and morbidity in patients with advanced cancer. In this study, patients supplemented with 2.2 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) per day maintained weight, muscle mass, and adipose tissue throughout approximately 10 weeks of chemotherapy, despite having a mean weight loss of 6.3 percent over the previous 6 months. During the same period, patients receiving no supplementation lost an average of 2.3 kilograms (5 pounds).


  
Long Chain Omega 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation in the Treatment of Elderly Depression: Effects on Depressive Symptoms, on Phospholipids Fatty Acids Profile and on Health-related Quality of Life
J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 (Jan);   15 (1):   37–44

In this two-month Italian study, 46 depressed female nursing home patients ages 66–95, received either supplements of 2.5 g omega 3 fatty acids or a placebo daily. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation reduced the occurrence of depressive symptoms, improved phospholipid fatty acid profile, and improved health-related quality of life measurements in the Omega 3 group, compared to the placebo group.


  
Specialty Supplements and Breast Cancer Risk in the VITamins
And Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort

           Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 (Jul);   19 (7):   1696–1708

           Dietary supplements taken for menopause have been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. This study investigated the long-term use of supplements and breast cancer risk in 35,000 postmenopausal women, in the Vitamins and Lifestyle study. Supplemental fish oil use was associated with a 32% reduced risk of breast cancer and 10-year average use was suggestive of reduced risk for breast cancer. The authors conclude that fish oil intake may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk and that future research for fish oil in chemoprevention studies is warranted.


  
Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) - Monograph
           Alternative Medicine Review 2009 (Dec);   14 (4):   391–399 ~ FULL TEXT

           Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that falls into the larger category of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although many chronic conditions are associated with excessive intake of dietary saturated and trans fatty acids (including obesity, insulin resistance, coronary heart disease, and some forms of cancer), research shows omega-3 fatty acids, including DHA, are essential in the prevention and treatment of numerous diseases. DHA has been shown to be particularly important for fetal brain development, optimal development of motor skills and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism in children and adults, and cognitive support in the elderly. In vitro and animal studies also suggest a beneficial role for DHA in certain types of cancer.


  
Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Human Health Outcomes
           Biofactors 2009 (Apr 23)  [Epub ahead of print]

           Current intakes of very long chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are low in most individuals living in Western countries. At sufficient levels of incorporation, EPA and DHA influence the physical nature of cell membranes and membrane protein-mediated responses, eicosanoid generation, cell signaling and gene expression in many different cell types. Through these mechanisms, EPA and DHA influence cell and tissue physiology, and the way cells and tissues respond to external signals. In most cases, the effects seen are compatible with improvements in disease biomarker profiles or in health-related outcomes. On the basis of the recognized health improvements brought about by long chain omega-3 fatty acids, recommendations have been made to increase their intake.


  
Effect of Fish Oil-Derived Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction and Immune Function in Athletes
The Physician and Sportsmedicine 2008 (Dec): 36 (1)

Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a condition in which vigorous physical activity triggers acute airway obstruction in asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals with hyperresponsive airways. Studies have shown that inflammatory mediators and contraction of airway smooth muscle are central components in the pathogenesis of EIB, and it has long been recognized that leukotrienes and prostaglandins play an important role in the EIB response. Studies have shown that 3 weeks of fish oil supplementation, rich in EPA and DHA, reduces exercise-induced airway narrowing, airway inflammation, and bronchodilator use in elite athletes and asthmatic individuals with EIB. Based on the evidence to date, fish oil supplementation may represent a potentially beneficial treatment intervention for athletes and asthmatic individuals with EIB.


  
Omega-3 DHA and EPA for Cognition, Behavior, and Mood: Clinical Findings and Structural-functional Synergies with Cell Membrane Phospholipids
Alternative Medicine Review 2007 (Sep);   12 (3):   207–227 ~ FULL TEXT

The omega-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are orthomolecular, conditionally essential nutrients that enhance quality of life and lower the risk of premature death. They function exclusively via cell membranes, in which they are anchored by phospholipid molecules. DHA is proven essential to pre- and postnatal brain development, whereas EPA seems more influential on behavior and mood. Both DHA and EPA generate neuroprotective metabolites. In double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, DHA and EPA combinations have been shown to benefit attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), autism, dyspraxia, dyslexia, and aggression.


  
Alpha Lipoic Acid Monograph II
           Alternative Medicine Review 2006 (Sep);   11 (3):   232–237 ~ FULL TEXT

           Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA – also known as thioctic acid) was discovered in 1951 as a molecule that assists in acyl-group transfer and as a coenzyme in the Krebs cycle. In the 1980s, the scientific community realized alpha-lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant. Several qualities distinguish alpha-lipoic acid from other antioxidants: ALA can be synthesized by animals and humans; [1] it neutralizes free radicals in both the fatty and watery regions of cells, in contrast to vitamin C (water soluble) and vitamin E (fat soluble); and, ALA functions as an antioxidant in both its reduced and oxidized forms. [2]


  
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oil) as an Anti-inflammatory: An Alternative
to Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs for Discogenic Pain

Surgical Neurology 2006 (Apr);   65 (4):   326–331

The use of NSAID medications is a well-established effective therapy for both acute and chronic nonspecific neck and back pain. Extreme complications, including gastric ulcers, bleeding, myocardial infarction, and even deaths, are associated with their use. An alternative treatment with fewer side effects that also reduces the inflammatory response and thereby reduces pain is believed to be omega-3 EFAs found in fish oil. We report our experience in a neurosurgical practice using fish oil supplements for pain relief.


  
Study Links Nutrition and Children’s Behaviour
           Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals 2005 (Jul)

           The double-blind study gave the 5- to 12-year-old children, many of whom had accompanying attention deficit problems and dyslexia, either an olive oil placebo or a fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement. Those on the supplement showed greatly increased concentration and ability to process information within three months of taking the supplement, with an average advancement in reading age of about nine months and spelling age of six months. Here's a report on the “The Durham Dyspraxia Trial”.


  
Neurobehavioral Aspects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Mechanisms
and Therapeutic Value in Major Depression

Alternative Medicine Review 2003 (Nov);   8 (4):   410–425 ~ FULL TEXT

Omega-3 fatty acids have been the subject of volumes of international research, the results of which indicate these substances may have therapeutic value in a number of medical conditions. An emerging area of research is examining the neurobehavioral aspects of omega-3 fatty acids (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic) and the critical role of these essential fats in the functioning of the central nervous system. Investigations have linked omega-3 fatty acids to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. The purpose of this article is to examine the possible mechanisms of action and potential clinical value of omega-3 fatty acids in major depression. A novel mechanism involving omega-3 modulation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is proposed.


  
The Diet-induced Proinflammatory State:
A Cause of Chronic Pain and Other Degenerative Diseases?

J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002 (Mar);   25 (2):   168-179 ~ FULL TEXT

We can no longer view different diseases as distinct biochemical entities. Nearly all degenerative diseases have the same underlying biochemical etiology, that is, a diet-induced proinflammatory state. Although specific diseases may require specific treatments, such as adjustments for hypomobile joints, Beta-blockers for hypertension, and chemotherapy for cancer, the treatment program must also include nutritional protocols to reduce the proinflammatory state.


  
Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids:
Impact on Cancer Chemotherapy and Radiation

Alternative Medicine Review 2002 (Feb);   7 (1):   4–21 ~ FULL TEXT

Preclinical studies have shown that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids may actually enhance the cytotoxicity of several antineoplastic agents and the anticancer effects of radiotherapy. These effects are possibly mediated by incorporation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids into cancer cell membranes, thus altering the physical and functional properties. In addition, certain polyunsaturated fatty acids may also reduce or prevent some of the side effects of these therapies, and administering antioxidants to prevent polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced oxidative stress may further enhance the impact of chemotherapy and radiation.


  
Multiple Sclerosis, An Autoimmune Inflammatory Disease:
Prospects for its Integrative Management

Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Dec);   6 (6):   540–566 ~ FULL TEXT

No pharmaceutical or other therapies exist that confer prolonged remission on MS, and obvious interrelationships between toxic, infectious, and dietary factors make a persuasive case for integrative management. The time-proven MS diet meticulously keeps saturated fats low, includes three fish meals per week, and eliminates allergenic foods. Dietary supplementation for MS minimally requires potent vitamin supplementation, along with the thiol antioxidants, the anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, and adaptogenic phytonutrients. Gut malabsorption and dysbiosis can be corrected using digestive enzymes and probiotics. You may review other articles about the nutritional treatment for Multiple Sclerosis


  
Conjugated Linoleic Acid: A Review
           Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Aug);   6 (4):   367–382 ~ FULL TEXT

           Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of the omega-6 essential fatty acid linoleic acid. In humans evidence is currently ambiguous as to whether CLA supplementation has a significant effect on body composition. Despite favorable changes in lipid levels in animal models, a beneficial effect in humans has not yet been established. While some of the changes reported are consistent with an improved lipid profile, declines in HDL and increases in lipoprotein (a) have also been observed in some subjects. Available evidence suggests CLA supplementation has no impact on immune system performance in healthy subjects.


  
Can Manipulation of the Ratios of Essential Fatty Acids Slow
the Rapid Rate of Postmenopausal Bone Loss?

Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Feb);   6 (1):   61–77 ~ FULL TEXT

The rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss is mediated by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Dietary supplementation with fish oil, flaxseeds, and flaxseed oil in animals and healthy humans significantly reduces cytokine production while concomitantly increasing calcium absorption, bone calcium, and bone density. Possibilities may exist for the therapeutic use of the omega-3 fatty acids, as supplements or in the diet, to blunt the increase of the inflammatory bone resorbing cytokines produced in the early postmenopausal years, in order to slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss. Evidence also points to the possible benefit of gamma-linolenic acid in preserving bone density.


  
Fish Oil Monograph
           Alternative Medicine Review 2000 (Aug);   5 (6):   576–580 ~ FULL TEXT

           Many well-recognized problems are associated with excessive intake of dietary fat, including obesity, insulin resistance, coronary heart disease, and some forms of cancer. While intakes of saturated, trans, and arachidonic fatty acids have been linked to the development of chronic disease, research shows omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, specifically fish oils, are essential in the prevention and treatment of disease.


  
Life in the Balance - The Critical Need for Omega-3 Supplementation
           Natural Medicine Online 2000 (Jul) ~ FULL TEXT

           Throughout human history mankind has ingested an approximate equal proportion (1/1 ratio) of Omega-6 to Omega-3 fatty acids. The Omegas 6 and 3 are two of forty-nine known essential nutrients. As essential nutrients they cannot be synthesized by the body, but must be ingested directly in foods or in the form of dietary supplements. The relationship of equivalence between the two Omegas is critical because they self-check each other in a delicate balance to regulate thousands of metabolic functions through prostaglandin pathways.


  
Serum Fatty Acid Imbalance in Bone Loss:
Example with Periodontal Disease

Clin Nutr 2000 (Aug);   19 (4):   271–276

People often use omega-3 fatty acids to reduce the inflammation associated with arthritis. As it turns out, these fatty acids may actually help prevent bone loss. French researchers found that high levels of pro-inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids were strongly associated with bone loss in a group of 105 periodontal patients. The use of omega-3 supplements — 360 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 240 mg/day of docasahexanoic acid (DHA) — appeared to decrease production of proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 in bone. Significantly, it also stopped bone loss.


   Fats, Fish Oil and Omega-3-Fatty Acids ~ A Primer
           Find out a little about EFA's and what are Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids.


  
Alpha Lipoic Acid Monograph
           Alternative Medicine Review 1998 (Aug);   3 (4):   308–311 ~ FULL TEXT

           Acting as a potent antioxidant, DHLA was found to protect rat pancreatic islet cells from destruction by reactive oxygen species.10 In vitro, lipoic acid was found to stimulate glucose uptake by muscle cells in a manner similar to insulin.11 Type 2 diabetics, given 1000 mg intravenously (I.V.), experienced a 50 percent improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake.


  
Natural COX-2 Inhibitors: The Future of Pain Relief
           Although NSAIDs are effective, their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-fever and anti-thrombotic results can come at a high price. They can inhibit COX-2, but they inhibit COX-1 as well. This is problematic because COX-1 inhibition "turns off" some important functions such as the repair and maintenance of stomach lining, which results in varying degrees of gastric ulcerations, perforations or obstructions in one-third to almost one-half of patients taking them. [4] Moreover, on the extreme end, more than 16,500 people die in the United States each year from NSAID-related gastrointestinal bleeding. [5]


  
A Smart Start for Pregnancy and Lactation
           Many health–conscious women who are pregnant or breast–feeding adhere to dietary guidelines set by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology that recommend limiting fat intake for the health of their babies. However, scientists now recognize that specific long–chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) are required for the development of a baby's brain, nerves, heart and eyes. Furthermore, research has revealed that pregnant American women do not get enough LCPs in their diet, even when they are not necessarily trying to limit fat intake. [1]


  
Alpha Lipoic Acid: The Universal Antioxidant
           Move over vitamins C and E, there is another antioxidant in town said to provide a far wider range of benefits. Lipoic acid, which is the priority name according to the American Society of Biological Chemistry, is also known as alpha-lipoic acid and thioctic acid. Like other antioxidants, lipoic acid has the ability to scavenge the body for disease-causing free radicals; however, that appears to only scratch the surface of this supplement's benefits. Antioxidants are substances that inhibit oxidation of cells by neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules that contain one or more unpaired electrons and cause damage by "stealing" electrons from other molecules such as DNA, fats and proteins. Antioxidants prevent this damage by donating electrons to the radical, preempting its need to "steal" and thus neutralizing the radical's reactivity.


  
Battle of the Omega-3s: Marine vs Veggie Sources of Omega-3s
           Omega-3 fatty acids are generally derived from either nonmarine sources (vegetable oils) or marine sources. [1] Fatty acids from marine oils include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA), primarily obtained from cold-water fish. Recently, menhaden oil and omega-3 oils from micro algae have been granted GRAS status by the US government. The nonmarine sources of omega-3s are generally in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and can be obtained from flaxseed, walnut and other oilseeds such as soybean or canola.


  
Non-fish Sources of the Omega-3s???
           Much has been written about the cardiovascular, anticancer and immune-modulating effects of omega-3 oils found in cold-water fish. The main fatty acids in this family are alpha linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). DHA and EPA, found predominantly in fish, appear to have most of the beneficial effects attributed to omega-3 oils, although the body can convert ALA to both DHA and EPA. However, the body will only convert about 10% of ALA to DHA.


  
Polyunsaturated Fats and Neurological Disorders
           For he past 50 years, major psychiatric disorders generally have been attributed to neurotransmitter system abnormalities. Neurotransmitters are biochemicals that transfer information from one neuron, or central nervous system cell, to another. While this concept is still considered valid, it has limited ability to explain the origins and guide the treatment of mental illness. Furthermore, there is a growing consensus in scientific circles that the phospholipid metabolism of the neuron cells themselves also plays a crucial role in the development of mental conditions. [1] Phospholipids are substances composed of two fatty acids linked to a phosphate group (e.g. choline, serine, inositol). This consensus has come because numerous studies have linked low brain levels of these substances to conditions such as depression, dyslexia, schizophrenia and more.


[Green Ball]   
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) for Bone Growth and Repair
           Bone strength is not normally associated with conditions such as osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, severe food allergies, Lyme disease or the autoimmune condition known as ankylosing spondylitis. However, these conditions are known to interfere with the absorption and utilization of nutrients needed to construct healthy bone and cartilage. [1] Moreover, some biochemical messengers associated with these chronic inflammatory conditions directly interfere with bone growth and repair. [2]


[Green Ball]   
The Essential PUFA Guide For Dogs And Cats
           Dogs and cats suffer from many problems that affect their skin and coats. Skin, the body's largest organ, is a natural protector against toxic substances, dehydration, infection, and ultraviolet light. Good nutrition can have a positive effect on an animal's coat and skin.


  
Fish Oil Reduces Atherosclerotic Blockages
           Evidence that a diet rich in fish reduces the incidence of heart disease [1,2] is so strong and the news so widespread that people are taking it for granted. Despite the promising evidence of this preventive effect, however, remarkably few human studies prove encapsulated fish oil is more effective than placebo as a heart disease treatment. The few studies were relatively small and had mixed results—some showing benefit, others not. [3-6]


  
Omega-3s May Help Rheumatoid Arthritis
           Omega-3 fatty acid-rich fish oil supplements may provide modest improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to a double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Newcastle in Australia. In this study, 50 people with RA were randomly assigned to take either 40 mg/kg body weight of fish oil (containing 60 percent omega-3 fatty acids) or placebo daily for 15 weeks. The fish oil group had an average age of 54 and an average disease duration of 12 years, whereas the placebo group was 60 years old on average and had RA for an average of 15 years. Because omega-6 fatty acids, found in most vegetable oils, compete with omega-3 fatty acids, the researchers included only subjects who generally ate less than 10 g/day of omega-6 fatty acids.


  
A Simple Chart of the Omega–3 and Omega–6 Fatty Acids
           The ideal ratio of omega–6:omega–3 fatty acid consumption is 1:1. The average American diet pushes that ratio to 20:1 or 30:1. Where have the omega–3 fatty acids gone? Blame it on altered eating habits.


  
Fish Oil Could Be an Alternative to Ritalin
           Dr Basant Puri, a consultant and senior lecturer at Hammersmith Hospital in Ireland has been using sophisticated imaging techniques to study the role of fatty acids in brain function. He says he has unearthed a wealth of evidence about how supplementation with specific fatty acids can not only help those with ADD/ADHD (attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder), but also dyslexia and dyspraxia.


  
Essential Fatty Acids Improve Infant IQ
           An infant's brain grows rapidly during the first year of life––tripling its size from birth. In that year, the foundations for intelligence, vision and language are built. Since the human brain is about 60 percent fat, all this brain building requires fatty acids. Proper foods, rich in those fats, might even give babies an intelligence advantage.


  
Important Fats For The Body
           "Save your heart–eat less fat." This is a fallacy believed by many. People follow the simplified formula by eating traditionally low–fat foods such as bread, pasta and cereal. Manufacturers supplement consumer buying trends with low–fat cookies, crackers and treats.


  
Stress-Reducing Fatty Acids Also May Defuse Health Risks
           More than half of all patients who visit general physicians suffer from symptoms triggered or made worse by stress– headaches, ulcers, fatigue or even emotional distress. Two research studies demonstrated that essential fatty acid nutritional supplements can increase resistance to stress– and its debilitating and costly side effects.


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Omega-3 Fatty Acid Abstracts by Category
 
   


  
Alzheimer's Disease & EFAs


  
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & EFAs



  
Cardiovascular Disease & EFAs


  
Immune System & EFAs


  
Cancer & EFAs


  
Diabetic Neuropathy & EFAs


  
Multiple Sclerosis & EFAs


  
Neurodegenerative Diseases & EFAs


  
Pain & EFAs


  
Parkinson's Disease & EFAs


  
Ulcerative Colitis & EFAs


  
Rheumatoid Arthritis & EFAs


  
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Allergic and Inflammatory Diseases, Migraine, Cardiovascular and Postmenopausal Issues & EFAs


  
Stroke & EFAs

 
   

Behavioural Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acids
 
   


  
Study Links Nutrition and Children’s Behaviour
           Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals July 2005

           The double-blind study gave the 5- to 12-year-old children, many of whom had accompanying attention deficit problems and dyslexia, either an olive oil placebo or a fish oil-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement. Those on the supplement showed greatly increased concentration and ability to process information within three months of taking the supplement, with an average advancement in reading age of about nine months and spelling age of six months. Here's a report on the “The Durham Dyspraxia Trial”.

Thanks to   Pub Med
for their quality MEDLINE search tool.




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