COENZYME - Q10 (Co-Q10)
 
   

Coenzyme – Q10
(Co–Q10)

This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.
Send all comments or additions to:
  Frankp@chiro.org

If there are terms in these articles you don't understand, you can get a definition from the Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. If you want information about a specific disease, you can access the Merck Manual. You can also search Pub Med for more abstracts on this, or any other health topic.

Jump to: Introduction Co-Q10 Articles

 

 


CoQ and:
Allergies Cancer Diabetes Heart Disease


Immune System Neurodegeneration Periodontal Disease Statin Drugs


Other
Pages:
Acidophilus Alpha Lipoic Acid Antioxidants Beta Carotene


Bioflavonoids Co–Q10 Gamma-Linolenic Ginkgo


Glucosamine Magnesium Omega-3 Acids Resveratrol


Selenium Soy Protein Vitamin B Complex Iatrogenic Injury


Conditions That Respond Well Alt-Med Approaches to Disease
 
   

Introduction
 
   

Published research has suggested that Coenzyme Q–10 (Co–Q10) is beneficial for certain types of heart disease. What is less widely known is it's role in the support of the immune system, and it's impact on neurodegenerative diseases like Huntington's and Parkinson's.

Immune system cells divide more rapidly than most cells, and they are in constant need of repair and maintenance. All of this work requires energy reserves, and Co–Q10 is a critical co–factor in our energy–production pathways. In both animal and human studies, Co–Q10 has compensated for immune deficiencies caused by aging or disease.

Co–Q10 is also a very powerful antioxidant. It is made in our bodies, within a cell organelle called the "mitochondria", and is most concentrated in the energy–demanding heart, brain and muscle systems. Unfortunately, Co–Q10 levels decrease with age (starting at 35 years). Reduced Co–Q10 levels, due either to aging or certain disease conditions, may be overcome by supplementation. Older animals receiving Co–Q10 show increased levels in their blood and brain, and Co–Q10 supplements may help humans in the same way.

Certain "heart–care" drugs inhibit the body's ability to synthesize or utilize Co-Q10. Patients who are taking Cholesterol–lowering Drugs or Beta blockers may be at increased risk of disorders as varied as congestive heart failure, muscle wasting, high blood pressure, and low energy.

Co–Q10 is present in the foods we eat. Rich dietary sources include almonds, ocean salmon, sardines, spinach and certain meats. Research has shown that "soft gel" (or oil–suspension) versions of CoQ10 supplements are much more bioavailable than dry powdered versions.

 
   

Co-Q10 Articles
 
   

Coenzyme Q10 Benefits Symptoms in Gulf War Veterans:
Results of a Randomized Double-blind Study

Gulf War syndrome (GWS), also known as Gulf War illness (GWI), is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting one-quarter to one-third of 1990-1 Gulf War veterans.   A wide range of acute and chronic symptoms have been linked to it, including fatigue, muscle pain, cognitive problems, rashes and diarrhea.

This newly published study on Gulf War veterans shows that Co-Q 10 supplementation significantly improved many symptoms of Gulf War Illness, including word recall, fatigue, and irritability.


A Building Block of Healthy Aging
Dynamic Chiropractic 2013

This essential quinine molecule is found in the mitochondria of every single cell in the body, where it plays a key role in energy production. CoQ10 not only assists in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but also scavenges free radicals. [1] To carry out these critical tasks, mitochondrial CoQ10 continuously cycles from ubiquinone, its ATP production state, to ubiquinol, its reduced active state. [2] More than 4,000 published studies suggest that high CoQ10 levels are essential for optimal health - and this is especially true for the heart and brain. Since both of these organs require huge amounts of energy, supplementation can often help support their high biologic activity. [2, 3] Research shows that CoQ10 supplementation can improve energy production and extend cell life by enhancing cellular mitochondrial levels of CoQ10. In turn, this supports not only the heart and brain, but also periodontal, skin, reproductive, and immune health. [4-9] However, before you advise patients to add CoQ10 to their daily routine, be aware that there's a catch to taking this multitalented nutrient in supplemental form.


Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium
in Statin-associated Myopathy Treatment

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 (Feb);   91 (2):   165-170

In conclusion, supplementation of statin-treated patients with CoQ10 resulted in a decrease in the symptoms of statin-associated myopathy (SAM), both in absolute numbers and intensity. Additional selenium supplementation was not associated with any statistically significant decrease of SAM.


Coenzyme Q10 Reverses Mitochondrial Dysfunction in
Atorvastatin-treated Mice and Increases Exercise Endurance

J Appl Physiol. 2012 (Aug);   113 (3):   479-486

We found that atorvastatin-treated mice developed muscular mitochondrial dysfunction due to ubiquinone deficiency and a decrease in exercise endurance without affecting muscle mass and strength. Meanwhile, pravastatin at ten times higher dose of atorvastatin had no such effects. In cultured myocytes, atorvastatin-related decrease in mitochondrial activity led to a decrease in oxygen utilization and an increase in lactate production. Conversely, coenzyme Q(10) treatment in atorvastatin-treated mice reversed atorvastatin-related mitochondrial dysfunction and a decrease in oxygen utilization, and thus improved exercise endurance.


Coenzyme Q10: The Essential Nutrient
J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 (Jul);   3 (3):   466-467

Antioxidants, such as CoQ10, can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause. CoQ10 improves energy, augments the immune system, and acts as an antioxidant. The potential use of coenzyme Q10 supplements alone or in combination with other drug therapies and nutritional supplements may help prevent or treat some of the following conditions:   cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, cancer, periodontal diseases, mitochondrial disorders, radiation injury, obesity, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), gastric ulcers, allergy, migraine headaches, kidney failure, muscular dystrophy, and aging.


Reduced G Tolerance Associated with Supplement Use
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 (Feb);   82 (2):   140-143

The case presented here details a Naval Aviator who experienced reduced G tolerance over two successive flights with a temporal relationship of starting a new supplement. Two components of the supplement, coenzyme Q10 and niacin, are highlighted here for their hemodynamic effects. After stopping the supplement the aviator regained his normal G tolerance and had no further issues in flight. There are several factors that can reduce G tolerance and supplement use has to be considered here because of the potential for altering the normal physiological response to increased G force. Our discussion reviews the physiological effects of increased G force, the spectrum of signs of decompensation under the stress of G force, and the potential effects this supplement had on the normal physiological response to increased G force, thus reducing the aviator's G tolerance.


Protective Effect of L-Carnitine and Coenzyme Q10
on CCl(4)-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

Sci Pharm. 2010 (Aug 23);   78 (4):   881-896

This study provides an information about the mechanisms of liver injury induced by CCl(4), and determines the influence of administration of L-carnitine or/and CoQ10 as prophylactic agents against CCl(4) (carbon tetra-chloride) deteriorative effect. On the other hand, groups treated with L-carnitine or/and CoQ10 prior to CCl(4) injection showed an improvement in most parameters when compared with cirrhotic control group. It has been concluded that L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 have a pronounced prophylactic effect against liver damage induced by halogenated alkanes such as carbon tetrachloride.


Coenzyme Q10 Monograph Update
Alternative Medicine Review 2007;   12 (2):   159-168 ~ FULL TEXT

CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences. Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders, and periodontal disease.


Chronic Fatigue Syndrome:
Oxidative Stress and Dietary Modifications

Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Oct);   6 (5):   450-459 ~ FULL TEXT

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an illness characterized by persistent and relapsing fatigue, often accompanied by numerous symptoms involving various body systems. The etiology of CFS remains unclear; however, a number of recent studies have shown oxidative stress may be involved in its pathogenesis. The role of oxidative stress in CFS is an important area for current and future research as it suggests the use of antioxidants in the management of CFS.


Coenzyme Q10 - Its Importance, Properties and Use
in Nutrition and Cosmetics

Ceska Slov Farm 2000 (May);   49 (3):   119-123

After the age of 35 to 40, the organism begins to lose its ability to synthesize Co Q10 from food and its deficiency develops. Ageing, poor eating habits, stress and infection - they all affect our ability to provide adequate amounts of Co Q10. Therefore Co Q10 supplementation may be very helpful for the organism.


Interaction Between Warfarin and Coenzyme Q10
Ugeskr Laeger 1998 (May 25);   160 (22):   3226-3227

Patients in treatment with warfarin (an anticoagulant or "blood thinner" which decreases the clotting ability of blood, and therefore helps to prevent clots from forming in blood vessels) should be aware of the possible risk of treatment failure when taking coenzyme Q10.


Coenzyme Q10 Monograph
Alternative Medicine Review 1998 (Feb);   3 (1):   58-61 ~ FULL TEXT

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. Because of its ubiquitous presence in nature and its quinone structure (similar to that of vitamin K), CoQ10 is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences. Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders, and periodontal disease.


The Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Medicine:   Part I
Alternative Medicine Review 1996 (May);   1 (1):   11-17 ~ FULL TEXT

This review discusses the potential role of coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of AIDS, periodontal disease, gastric ulceration, obesity, physical performance, allergy, and muscular dystrophy. The effect of Q10 on immune function and physical performance is also reviewed.


The Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Medicine:   Part II
Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Infertility

Alternative Medicine Review 1996 (Sep);   1 (3):   168-175 ~ FULL TEXT

Enhancing myocardial function is an important, though frequently overlooked component of the overall prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. CoQ10 plays a key role in energy production, and is therefore essential for all energy-dependent processes, including heart-muscle contraction. CoQ10 deficiency has been documented in patients with various types of cardiovascular disease. It is not clear whether a decline in CoQ10 levels is a primary cause or a consequence of heart disease. However, given the fundamental involvement of CoQ10 in myocardial function, it is not unlikely that CoQ10 deficiency would exacerbate heart disease and that correction of such a deficiency would have therapeutic value.


Co-Q10 Energizes the Heart and Brain
Co-Q10 has a dual function. On one hand, it is essential for generating energy in mitochondria, the energy centers of virtually every cell. On the other hand, it is part of the cell antioxidant defense system, which protects against toxic oxygen by-products made during metabolism. [3] Co-Q10 is made in human cells and is found in the cells of animals and plants that comprise our daily diet. Because of its widespread and ubiquitous presence, Co-Q10 is also called ubiquinone.


Innovative Research And Applications For Coq10
Ubiquinone, commonly referred to as coenzyme Q10, was originally so named because of its omnipresence in virtually every cell of the human body. According to Dr. Karl Folkers, a pioneer in the CoQ10 fermentation synthesis, CoQ10 should be properly renamed “vitamin Q,” and thus take its rightful place in the pantheon of essential nutrients.


The Co-Q10 - Cancer Connection
Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) is a powerful antioxidant that boosts the heart's ability to endure stress and supports mitochondria-cellular structures that produce energy from food. Recent research suggests that low Co-Q10 levels are linked to certain cancers. One U.S. study compared 27 women with normal Pap smears with 75 women with cervical cancer and its precursor-cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Women with cervical cancer and neoplasia had lower concentrations of cervical/vaginal cell Co-Q10 and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) compared to women with normal Pap smears.


How Co-Q is Being Used to Fight Cancer
The data on actually treating cancer are exciting but preliminary. Research suggests a relationship between various cancers and the level of Co-Q10 in the blood. [4] One human trial studied the effect of 90 mg/day of Co-Q10 on breast cancer patients. The results showed that after two years, the women who took Co-Q10 lived longer. Because there was no placebo in this trial, the researchers calculated that on standard therapy, a percentage of these women would have died in this time period. With the nutritional protocol, none of them did. [5]

 
   

Co–Q10 and the Immune System
 
   

A Nutritional Approach to Immunity
Many studies show that immune function depends on nutrients found primarily in whole, unprocessed foods. [2] Researchers have also confirmed that physical activity and a healthy emotional state are essential for proper immune function. [3, 4] A healthy diet and lifestyle may be the cornerstones of a strong immune system, but what specific measures can be taken when a person is faced with an immune challenge such as the annual cold and flu season?


Coenzyme Q10 Monograph Update
Alternative Medicine Review 2007 (Jun); 12 (2):   159–168 ~ FULL TEXT

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. Because of its ubiquitous presence in nature and its quinone structure (similar to that of vitamin K), CoQ10 is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences. Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders, and periodontal disease.


Energy Transformations in the Biosynthesis of the Immune System:   Their Relevance to the Progression and Treatment of AIDS
Ceska Slov Farm 2000 (May);   49 (3):   119–123

Dysfunction of the immune system is observed in diseases where metabolic respiration is inhibited. Anabolites that enhance oxidative phosphorylation will provide the ATP essential for the biosynthesis of the cellular components and antibodies of the immune system. The induction of Coenzyme Q10 has been observed to protect against tumor growth and to enhance viral immunity in experimental animals.


The Activities of Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin B6 for Immune Responses
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1993 (May 28);   193 (1):   88–92

The blood levels of T4–lymphocytes increased when CoQ10 and pyridoxine were administered together and separately. The ratio of T4/T8 lymphocytes increased when CoQ10 and pyridoxine were administered together and separately. These increases in IgG and T4–lymphocytes with CoQ10 and vitamin B6 are clinically important for trials on AIDS, other infectious diseases, and on cancer.


Coenzyme Q10 Increases T4T8 Ratios of Lymphocytes in Ordinary Subjects and Relevance to Patients Having the AIDS Related Complex
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1991 (Apr 30);   176 (2):   786–791

We have newly found that 14 ordinary subjects responded to CoQ10 by increases in the T4/T8 ratios and an increase in blood levels of CoQ10; both by p less than 0.001. This knowledge and survival of two ARC patients for four-five years on CoQ10 without symptoms, and new data on increasing ratios of T4/T8 lymphocytes in the human by treatment with CoQ10 constitute a rationale for new double blind clinical trials on treating patients with AIDS, ARC and diverse malignancies with CoQ10.


Research on Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Medicine
and in Immunomodulation

Drugs Exp Clin Res 1985;   11 (8):   539–545

The cardiotoxicity of adriamycin, used in treatment modalities of cancer, is significantly reduced by CoQ10, apparently because the side–effects of adriamycin include inhibition of mitochondrial CoQ10 enzymes. Models of the immune system including phagocytic rate, circulating antibody level, neoplasia, viral and parasitic infections were used to demonstrate that CoQ10 is an immunomodulating agent.


Biochemical Deficiencies of Coenzyme Q10 in
HIV–infection and Exploratory Treatment

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1988 (Jun 16);   153 (2):   888–896

In spite of poor compliance of 5/7 patients, the treatment was very encouraging and at times even striking.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Cancer
 
   

Coenzyme Q10 Monograph Update
Alternative Medicine Review 2007 (Jun); 12 (2):   159–168 ~ FULL TEXT

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. Because of its ubiquitous presence in nature and its quinone structure (similar to that of vitamin K), CoQ10 is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences. Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders, and periodontal disease.


Coenzyme Q10 Concentrations and Antioxidant Status
in Tissues of Breast Cancer Patients

Clin Biochem 2000 (Jun);   33 (4):   279–284

An increasing amount of experimental and epidemiological evidence implicates the involvement of oxygen derived radicals in the pathogenesis of cancer development. These findings may support that reactive oxygen species increased in malignant cells, and may cause overexpression of antioxidant enzymes and the consumption of coenzyme Q10. Administration of coenzyme Q10 by nutrition may induce the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 on breast tissue.


Recent Progress in Treatment and Secondary Prevention
of Breast Cancer With Supplements

Alternative Medicine Review 1997 (Jan);   2 (1):   4–11 ~ FULL TEXT

This article discusses five naturally occurring agents that are currently being studied to evaluate their potential in the treatment and/or secondary prevention of breast cancer. Preliminary data have been published suggesting that high dose coenzyme Q10 may have anti-cancer activity in women with node-positive breast cancer.


Relevance of the Biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10 and of the Four Bases of DNA as a Rationale for the Molecular Causes of Cancer
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996 (Jul 16);   224 (2):   358–361

Coenzyme Q10 is required to produce DNA for accurate cell replication. For the body to produce CoQ10 it requires the presence of vitamins B6, C, B2, B12, folic acid, niacin, and pantothenic acid as their coenzymes. This paper established deficiencies of Q10 and B6 in cancer. This complete biochemistry relating to biosyntheses of Q10 and the DNA bases is a rationale for the therapy of cancer with Q10 and other entities in this biochemistry.


The Co–Q10 – Cancer Connection
Coenzyme Q10 (Co–Q10) is a powerful antioxidant that boosts the heart's ability to endure stress and supports mitochondria—cellular structures that produce energy from food. Recent research suggests that low Co–Q10 levels are linked to certain cancers. One U.S. study compared 27 women with normal Pap smears with 75 women with cervical cancer and its precursor—cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Women with cervical cancer and neoplasia had lower concentrations of cervical/vaginal cell Co–Q10 and vitamin E (alpha–tocopherol) compared to women with normal Pap smears.


Progress on Therapy of Breast Cancer with Vitamin Q10
and the Regression of Metastases

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995 (Jul 6);   212 (1):   172–177

Over 35 years, data and knowledge have internationally evolved from biochemical, biomedical and clinical research on vitamin Q10 (coenzyme Q10; CoQ10) and cancer, which led in 1993 to overt complete regression of the tumors in two cases of breast cancer.


Partial and Complete Regression of Breast Cancer in Patients
in Relation to Dosage of Coenzyme Q10

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994 (Mar 30);   199 (3):   1504–1508

Relationships of nutrition and vitamins to the genesis and prevention of cancer are increasingly evident. In a clinical protocol, 32 patients having "high-risk" breast cancer were treated with antioxidants, fatty acids, and 90 mg. of CoQ10.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Allergies
 
   

Acquired Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency in Children with Recurrent
Food Intolerance and Allergies

Mitochondrion. 2011 (Jan);   11 (1):   127–135

The current study evaluated 23 children (ages 2-16 years) with recurrent food intolerance and allergies for CoQ10 deficiency and mitochondrial abnormalities. Muscle biopsies were tested for CoQ10 levels, pathology, and mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activities. Group 2 (age >10 years; n = 9) subjects had significantly decreased muscle CoQ10 than Group 1 (age <10 y; n = 14) subjects (p = 0.001) and 16 controls (p<0.05). MRC activities were significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05). Muscle CoQ10 levels in study subjects were significantly correlated with duration of illness (adjusted r(2) = 0.69; p = 0.012; n = 23). Children with recurrent food intolerance and allergies may acquire CoQ10 deficiency with disease progression.


A Modified Determination of Coenzyme Q10 in Human Blood and CoQ10 Blood Levels in Diverse Patients with Allergies
Biofactors 1988 (Dec);   1 (4):   303–306

The biosynthesis of CoQ10 in human tissues is a complex process that requires several vitamins and micronutrients, so that countless vitamin–unsupplemented Americans may be deficient in CoQ10. The relationship of allergies to autoimmune mechanisms and immunity, and the established relationship of CoQ10 to immune states, may be a rationale for therapeutic trials of administering CoQ10 to patients with allergies who have low CoQ10 blood levels and are very likely deficient.


Effect of Coenzyme Q10, a Quinone Derivative, on Guinea Pig
Lung and Tracheal Tissue

Arzneimittelforschung 1985;   35 (6):   929–933

Co Q10 inhibits release of histamine, a major aspect of allergies. It is likely to reduce allergic reactions in humans.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Neurodegenerative Diseases
 
   

Nutraceuticals and Their Preventive or
Potential Therapeutic Value in Parkinson's Disease

Nutrition Reviews 2012 (Jul);   70 (7):   373–386

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common aging-related disorder in the world, after Alzheimer's disease. It is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and other parts of the brain, leading to motor impairment, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Current treatment methods, such as L-dopa therapy, are focused only on relieving symptoms and delaying progression of the disease. To date, there is no known cure for PD, making prevention of PD as important as ever. More than a decade of research has revealed a number of major risk factors, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, numerous nutraceuticals have been found to target and attenuate these risk factors, thereby preventing or delaying the progression of PD. These nutraceuticals include vitamins C, D, E, coenzyme Q10, creatine, unsaturated fatty acids, sulfur-containing compounds, polyphenols, stilbenes, and phytoestrogens.


Levels of Reduced and Oxidized Coenzyme Q-10 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the CSF of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Demonstrate That Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage and/or Oxidative DNA Damage Contributes to the Neurodegenerative Process
J Neurol 2010 (Mar);   257 (3):   399-404

To investigate the possibility that mitochondrial oxidative damage, oxidative DNA damage or both contribute to the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we employed high-performance liquid chromatography using an electrochemical detector to measure the concentrations of the reduced and oxidized forms of coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ-10) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 30 patients with AD and in 30 age-matched controls with no neurological disease.


Coenzyme Q10 Monograph Update
Alternative Medicine Review 2007 (Jun); 12 (2):   159–168 ~ FULL TEXT

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. Because of its ubiquitous presence in nature and its quinone structure (similar to that of vitamin K), CoQ10 is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences. Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders, and periodontal disease.


Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Myopathic Symptoms
in Patients Treated with Statins

Am J Cardiol. 2007 (May 15);   99 (10):   1409–1412

However, statin use is often associated with a variety of muscle-related symptoms or myopathies. Myopathy may be related in part to statin inhibition of the endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q10, an essential cofactor for mitochondrial energy production. After a 30-day intervention, pain severity decreased by 40% and pain interference with daily activities decreased by 38% in the group treated with coenzyme Q10. In contrast, no changes in pain severity or pain interference with daily activities (-11%, p = NS) was observed in the group treated with vitamin E. In conclusion, results suggest that coenzyme Q10 supplementation may decrease muscle pain associated with statin treatment. Thus, coenzyme Q10 supplementation may offer an alternative to stopping treatment with these vital drugs.


Neurodegeneration from Mitochondrial Insufficiency: Nutrients, Stem Cells, Growth Factors, and Prospects for Brain Rebuilding Using Integrative Management
Alternative Medicine Review 2005 (Dec); 10 (4):   268–293 ~ FULL TEXT

One emerging focus for intervention is brain energetics. Specifically, mitochondrial insufficiency contributes to the etiopathology of many such disorders. Electron leakages inherent to mitochondrial energetics generate reactive oxygen free radical species that may place the ultimate limit on lifespan. Exogenous toxins, such as mercury and other environmental contaminants, exacerbate mitochondrial electron leakage, hastening their demise and that of their host cells. Studies of the brain in Alzheimer's and other dementias, Down syndrome, stroke, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, aging, and constitutive disorders demonstrate impairments of the mitochondrial citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes.


Primary Coenzyme Q10 Deficiency and the Brain
Biofactors 2003;   18 (1-4):   145–152

Our findings in 19 new patients with cerebellar ataxia establish the existence of an ataxic syndrome due to primary CoQ10 deficiency and (they were) responsive to CoQ10 therapy. As all patients presented cerebellar ataxia and cerebellar atrophy, this suggests a selective vulnerability of the cerebellum to CoQ10 deficiency.


Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Early Parkinson Disease:
Evidence of Slowing of the Functional Decline

Arch Neurol 2002 (Oct);   59 (10):   1541–1550

Shults, et al., present the findings of a clinical trial that demonstrates that patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease, given coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation for 16 months, showed significantly less impairment than placebo-treated patients. The efficacy of treatment was readily apparent by the eighth month, and the study showed that patients given the highest dose of CoQ10 had the best overall results.


A Possible Role of Coenzyme Q10 in the Etiology and Treatment
of Parkinson's Disease

Biofactors 1999;   9 (2–4):   267–272

These data suggest that CoQ10 may play a role in cellular dysfunction found in PD and may be a potential protective agent for parkinsonian patients.


Coenzyme Q10 Administration and its Potential for Treatment
of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Biofactors 1999;   9 (2–4):   261–266

Oral administration of CoQ10 significantly decreased elevated lactate levels in patients with Huntington's disease. These studies therefore raise the prospect that administration of CoQ10 may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Heart Disease
 
   

Co-Q10 Effectively Reduces Cholesterol Levels
IUBMB Life 2011 (Jan);   63 (1):   42–48 ~ FULL TEXT

This study investigated whether Co-Q10 supplementation could reduce cholesterol levels through gene expression patterns. The researchers recruited 53 healthy males with an average age of 30 and were randomly supplemented with the reduced form of Co-Q10 (ubiquinol, Q10H2) at 150 mg daily for two weeks. The results were a 4.8-fold increase in CoQ10 plasma levels after supplementation. Gene expression patterns involved in inflammation, cell death and cell differentiation was identified. A 12.7 percent reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was reported (in 2 WEEKS!). “Q10H2 induces characteristic gene expression patterns, which are translated into reduced LDL cholesterol levels and altered parameters of [red blood cell production or] erythropoiesis in humans,” the scientists concluded.


Metabolic Cardiology: The Missing Link in Cardiovascular Disease
Altern Ther Health Med 2009 (Mar);   15 (2):   48–50

The importance of supporting energy production in heart cells and the preservation of the mitochondria in these cells will be the focus of a new frontier in cardiovascular prevention, treatment, and management. Many physicians are not trained to look at heart disease in terms of cellular biochemistry; therefore, the challenge in any metabolic cardiology discussion is in taking the conversation from the "bench to the bedside." An understanding of the vital role that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays in the heart is critical for any physician or clinician considering therapeutic options that support ATP production and turnover in jeopardized cardiac muscle cells.


Nutrition and Heart Failure:
Impact of Drug Therapies and Management Strategies

Nutr Clin Pract 2009 (Feb);   24 (1):   60–75

Nutrition impairment commonly occurs in patients with heart failure and affects disease progression. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are associated with early mortality, particularly in patients classified as cachectic. Guideline-based therapies approved for heart failure, such as loop diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and beta-adrenergic blockers, can lead to electrolyte abnormalities and predispose to some vitamin and micronutrient deficits.


Coenzyme Q10 Monograph Update
Alternative Medicine Review 2007 (Jun); 12 (2):   159–168 ~ FULL TEXT

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a compound found naturally in virtually every cell in the human body. Because of its ubiquitous presence in nature and its quinone structure (similar to that of vitamin K), CoQ10 is also known as ubiquinone. CoQ10 is a fat-soluble substance whose primary role is as a vital intermediate of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. Adequate amounts of CoQ10 are necessary for cellular respiration and ATP production. CoQ10 also functions as an intercellular antioxidant. True deficiency states are rare but often present with severe health consequences. Numerous disease processes, linked to low levels of CoQ10, can benefit from CoQ10 supplementation including cardiovascular disease, Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophy, breast and other cancers, diabetes mellitus, male infertility, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), asthma, thyroid disorders, and periodontal disease.


Atorvastatin Decreases the Coenzyme Q10 Level in the Blood of Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke
Arch Neurol. 2004 (Jun);   61 (6):   889–892

In this group of patients beginning treatment with atorvastatin, the average concentration of coenzyme Q10 in blood plasma decreased within 14 days, and had fallen by approximately 50% after 30 days of treatment. This definitely shows the risks of taking statin drugs, as well as suggesting that those who choose to take them must supplement with Co-Q 10 to offset the side-effects.


Coenzyme Q in Cardiovascular Disease
J Assoc Physicians India 1998 (Mar);   46 (3):   299–306

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency has been observed in patients with congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, mitral valve prolapse and after coronary revascularization.


The Clinical and Hemodynamic Effects of Coenzyme Q–10
in Congestive Cardiomyopathy

Am J Ther 1997 (Feb-Mar);   4 (2–3):   66–72

In summary, coenzyme Q–10 therapy is associated with significant functional, clinical, and hemodynamic improvements within the context of an extremely favorable benefit–to–risk ratio. Coenzyme Q–10 enhances cardiac output by exerting a positive inotropic effect upon the myocardium as well as mild vasodilatation.


Treatment of Essential Hypertension with Coenzyme Q10
Mol Aspects Med 1994;   15 Suppl:   S265–272

A total of 109 patients with symptomatic essential hypertension presenting to a private cardiology practice were observed after the addition of CoQ10 (average dose, 225 mg/day by mouth) to their existing antihypertensive drug regimen. In 80 per cent of patients, the diagnosis of essential hypertension was established for a year or more prior to starting CoQ10 (average 9.2 years). Only one patient was dropped from analysis due to noncompliance. Overall New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class improved from a mean of 2.40 to 1.36 (P < 0.001) and 51% of patients came completely off of between one and three antihypertensive drugs at an average of 4.4 months after starting CoQ10.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Periodontal Disease
 
   

Oxidant/antioxidant Interactions of Nicotine, Coenzyme Q10, Pycnogenol and Phytoestrogens in Oral Periosteal Fibroblasts and MG63 Osteoblasts
Steroids 2006 (Dec);   71 (13-14):   1062-1072

This investigation suggests that the catabolic effects of nicotine could be reversed by the addition of antioxidants such as CoQ or Pycnogenol and phytoestrogens.


Oxidative Injury and Inflammatory Periodontal Diseases: The Challenge of Anti-oxidants to Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species
Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1999;   10 (4):   458–476

Based on a review of direct and indirect anti-oxidant host defenses, particularly in relation to the key role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in periodontitis, we review current evidence for oxidative damage in chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, and the possible therapeutic effects of anti-oxidants in treating and/or preventing such pathology, with special attention to vitamin E and Co-enzyme Q.


Effect of Topical Application of Coenzyme Q10 on Adult Periodontitis
Mol Aspects Med 1994;   15 Suppl:   S241-248

These results suggest that topical application of CoQ10 improves adult periodontitis not only as a sole treatment but also in combination with traditional nonsurgical periodontal therapy.


Bioenergetics in Clinical Medicine IX. Gingival and Leucocytic Deficiencies of Coenzyme Q10 in Patients with Periodontal Disease
Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976 (Aug);   14 (4):   729–738

Periodontal patients frequently have significant gingival and leucocytic deficiencies of CoQ10. The leucocytic deficiency indicates a systemic nutritional imbalance and is not likely caused by neglected oral hygiene. A gingival deficiency could predispose this tissue to periodontitis and this disease could even augment the deficiency. These results support previously suggested adjunctive use of CoQ10 with oral hygiene for improved treatment presumably through bioenergetics.


Bioenergetics in Clinical Medicine II. Adjunctive Treatment
with Coenzyme Q in Periodontal Therapy

Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1975 (Sep);   12 (1):   111–123

Treatment of periodontitis with coenzyme Q should be considered as adjunctive treatment with current dental practice.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Diabetes
 
   

Mitochondrial Factors in the Pathogenesis of Diabetes:
A Hypothesis for Treatment

Alternative Medicine Review 2002 (Apr);   7 (2):   94–111 ~ FULL TEXT

A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between various disturbances in mitochondrial functioning and type 2 diabetes. This basic research into the pathogenesis of diabetes has led to the awareness of natural therapeutics (such as coenzyme Q10) that increase mitochondrial functioning and avoidance of trans-fatty acids that decrease mitochondrial functioning.


Insulin Resistance:   Lifestyle and Nutritional Interventions
Alternative Medicine Review 2000;   5 (2):   109–132 ~ FULL TEXT

Insulin resistance appears to be a common feature and a possible contributing factor to several frequent health problems, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, sleep apnea, certain hormone-sensitive cancers, and obesity. The role of nutritional and botanical substances in the management of insulin resistance requires further elaboration; however, available information suggests some substances are capable of positively influencing insulin resistance. Minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, zinc, chromium, and vanadium appear to have associations with insulin resistance or its management. Amino acids, including L-carnitine, taurine, and L-arginine, might also play a role in the reversal of insulin resistance.


Toward Practical Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes
Med Hypotheses 2000 (May);   54 (5):   786–793

Other nutrients that might prove to aid diabetic glycemic control, and thus have potential for prevention, include coenzyme Q and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Since the nutrients cited here - including ethanol in moderation - appear to be quite safe and (with the exception of CLA) quite affordable, supplementation with these nutrients may prove to be a practical strategy for diabetes prevention.

 
   

Co–Q10 and Statin Drugs
 
   

Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium
in Statin-associated Myopathy Treatment

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 (Feb);   91 (2):   165–170

In conclusion, supplementation of statin-treated patients with CoQ10 resulted in a decrease in the symptoms of statin-associated myopathy (SAM), both in absolute numbers and intensity. Additional selenium supplementation was not associated with any statistically significant decrease of SAM.


Coenzyme Q10 Reverses Mitochondrial Dysfunction in
Atorvastatin-treated Mice and Increases Exercise Endurance

J Appl Physiol. 2012 (Aug);   113 (3):   479–486

We found that atorvastatin-treated mice developed muscular mitochondrial dysfunction due to ubiquinone deficiency and a decrease in exercise endurance without affecting muscle mass and strength. Meanwhile, pravastatin at ten times higher dose of atorvastatin had no such effects. In cultured myocytes, atorvastatin-related decrease in mitochondrial activity led to a decrease in oxygen utilization and an increase in lactate production. Conversely, coenzyme Q(10) treatment in atorvastatin-treated mice reversed atorvastatin-related mitochondrial dysfunction and a decrease in oxygen utilization, and thus improved exercise endurance.


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