This section was compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C. Send all comments or additions to:Frankp@chiro.org
If there are terms in these articles you don't understand, you can get a definition from the Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. If you want information about a specific disease, you can access the Merck Manual. You can also search Pub Med for more abstracts on this, or any other health topic.
The Omega-3 Fatty Acids Page
Find out more about how Omega-3 essential fatty acids can help reduce inflammation (pain relief) while also protecting against the development of numerous diseases.
Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Marine and Botanical Oils:
An 18-month, Randomized, and Double-blind Trial
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014 (Mar 19); 2014: 857456
Although the combination of oils did not prove superior to either oil alone, patients in each group did improve significantly, so that most patients had incentive to continue the trial. In addition, these oils can substitute for NSAIDs, and the combination of both oils allows reduction of more toxic DMARDs by patients treated with agents that block TNFa. Newer formulations which provide appropriate fatty acids in smaller capsules would encourage more patients to use them rather than NSAIDs. Further studies of the combination of marine and botanical oils might provide data to persuade physicians to use them in treatment of patients on DMARDs and biologic agents, in an effort to reduce treatment with the more toxic DMARDs.
Gamma-linolenic Acid (GLA) Monograph (PDF)
Alternative Medicine Review 2004 (Mar); 9 (1): 7078 ~ FULL TEXT
Infants appear to lack sufficient delta-6-desaturase activity. Whereas breast milk is high in GLA and DGLA, infant formula is not. This can lead to a deficiency state in formula-fed infants, particularly skim milk-based formula.(8) GLA-deficient infants present with dryness, desquamation and thickening of the skin, and growth failure. (9,10) Subclinical deficiency of essential fatty acids has been studied in pre-term and term infants.
Multiple Sclerosis, An Autoimmune Inflammatory Disease: Prospects for its Integrative Management
Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Dec); 6 (6): 540566 ~ FULL TEXT
No pharmaceutical or other therapies exist that confer prolonged remission on MS, and obvious interrelationships between toxic, infectious, and dietary factors make a persuasive case for integrative management. The time-proven MS diet meticulously keeps saturated fats low, includes three fish meals per week, and eliminates allergenic foods. Dietary supplementation for MS minimally requires potent vitamin supplementation, along with the thiol antioxidants, the anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids, and adaptogenic phytonutrients. Gut malabsorption and dysbiosis can be corrected using digestive enzymes and probiotics. You may review other articles aboutnutritional management of Multiple Sclerosis
Can Manipulation of the Ratios of Essential Fatty Acids Slow
the Rapid Rate of Postmenopausal Bone Loss?
Alternative Medicine Review 2001 (Feb); 6 (1): 6177 ~ FULL TEXT
The rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss is mediated by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Dietary supplementation with fish oil, flaxseeds, and flaxseed oil in animals and healthy humans significantly reduces cytokine production while concomitantly increasing calcium absorption, bone calcium, and bone density. Possibilities may exist for the therapeutic use of the omega-3 fatty acids, as supplements or in the diet, to blunt the increase of the inflammatory bone resorbing cytokines produced in the early postmenopausal years, in order to slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss. Evidence also points to the possible benefit of gamma-linolenic acid in preserving bone density.
Effects of Gamma-linolenic Acid and Oleic Acid on Paclitaxel
Cytotoxicity in Human Breast Cancer Cells
Eur J Cancer 2001 (Feb); 37 (3): 402413
For comparison, the effects of other fatty acids on paclitaxel chemosensitivity were examined: GLA was the most potent at enhancing paclitaxel cytotoxicity, followed by alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n.3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), whereas linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) did not increase paclitaxel toxicity. These findings provide experimental support for the use of fatty acids as modulators of tumour cell chemosensitivity in paclitaxel-based therapy. You may review other articles aboutnutritional management of Cancer
Dietary Fatty Acid Supplementation Alters Stress Reactivity
and Performance in Man
J Hum Hypertens 1989 (Apr); 3 (2): 1116
Reactivity to the Stroop colour-word conflict test was assessed prior to and following treatment. Borage oil alone attenuated blood pressure and heart rate responses to stress, increased skin temperature, and improved task performance. These data suggest that diet may be used to alter stress reactivity in man.
Polyunsaturated (Essential) Fatty Acids and Their Importance in
Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy of Multiple Sclerosis
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1982 (Jun); 50 (6): 173189
The concept of nutritionally or metabolically induced generalized defects in all membranes, especially in the myelin sheath, as a predisposing factor to an increased susceptibility for the development of MS, provoked a gamut of pertinent studies frequently producing controversial results. Hence, these conceptions concerning the pathogenetic involvement of essential fatty acids in MS have been put to rest - even more so after the role of prostaglandins in immunoregulation had become more apparent, whose biological precursors are essential fatty acids.
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